Physiological dependence on benzodiazepines is accompanied by a withdrawal syndrome which is typically characterized by sleep disturbance, irritability.
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Physiological dependence on benzodiazepines can occur following prolonged treatment with therapeutic doses, but it is not clear what proportion of patients are likely to experience a withdrawal syndrome. Dependence on alcohol or other sedatives may increase the risk of benzodiazepine dependence, but it has proved difficult to demonstrate unequivocally differences in the relative abuse potential of individual benzodiazepines. Withdrawal phenomena appear to be more severe following withdrawal from high doses or short-acting benzodiazepines. It is also unknown to what extent the risk of physiological dependence is dependent upon a minimum duration of exposure or dosage of these drugs. The most common is a short-lived "rebound" anxiety and insomnia, coming on within 1-4 days of discontinuation, depending on the half-life of the particular drug. Physiological dependence on benzodiazepines is accompanied by a withdrawal syndrome which is typically characterized by sleep disturbance, irritability, increased tension and anxiety, panic attacks, hand tremor, sweating, difficulty in concentration, dry wretching and nausea, some weight loss, palpitations, headache, muscular pain and stiffness and a host of perceptual changes. Withdrawal from normal dosage benzodiazepine treatment can result in a number of symptomatic patterns. Instances are also reported within the high-dosage category of more serious developments such as seizures and psychotic reactions. The second pattern is the full-blown withdrawal syndrome, usually lasting 10-14 days; finally, a third pattern may represent the return of anxiety symptoms which then persist until some form of treatment is instituted.
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Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking.
There is cross tolerance between alcohol, the benzodiazepines, the barbiturates, the nonbenzodiazepine drugs, and corticosteroids, which all act by enhancing the GABA A receptor's function via modulating the chloride ion channel function of the GABA A receptor.     .
Animal studies have shown that repeated withdrawal from benzodiazepines leads to increasingly severe withdrawal symptoms, including an increased risk of seizures; this phenomenon is known as kindling.
Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse, is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses.
Temazepam abuse and seizures have been falling in the UK probably due to its reclassification as Schedule 3 controlled drug with tighter prescribing restrictions and the resultant reduction in availability. Cannabis was the top with 35 percent of individuals reporting it as their main problem drug. The statistics showed that treatment for benzodiazepines as the main problematic drug had more than doubled from the previous year and was a growing problem in Northern Ireland.
Benzodiazepine definition is - any of a group of aromatic lipophilic amines (such as diazepam and chlordiazepoxide) used especially as tranquilizers.
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benz- + di- + az- + -epine (from h ep ta- + -ine entry 2 ).
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Benzodiazepines have a wide‑range of therapeutic effects and are employed as anxiolytics, sedatives, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants. They act by.
We list the most important contraindications. The selection is not exhaustive.
References:. The selection is not exhaustive. We list the most important adverse effects.
Benzodiazepine overdose is very rarely life-threatening unless associated with the co-ingestion of alcohol or other respiratory depressants!
Long-term therapy should only be considered in exceptional cases after carefully weighing the risks involved! References:. In principle, there is no indication for long-term benzodiazepine therapy.
Benzodiazepine dependence can develop even after just a few weeks of use.